Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2019, Page: 46-56
Design of a Cascaded Black – Linear Distribution (CBLD) in Circular Aperture and Its Application on Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM)
Abdallah Mohamed Hamed, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
Received: Jul. 15, 2019;       Accepted: Aug. 12, 2019;       Published: Oct. 9, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ajop.20190703.11      View  49      Downloads  13
Abstract
A new model of Cascaded Black – Linear Distribution (CBLD) in circular aperture is suggested. Four different models of CBLD are studied. In the 1st model, ten strips are considered where half of them are black and the other half has linear distribution, starting with black strip from the center of the circular aperture. In the 2nd model, twenty strips are considered of equal black and linear zones. In the 3rd model, a ratio of 2:1 is given for the twenty strips of the CBLD. In the 4th model, annular aperture of linear distribution is considered. We have computed the Point Spread Function (PSF) corresponding to all arrangements and compared with the corresponding PSF for different apertures of circular, annular, and black and white (B/W) transparent circular apertures. The cut-off spatial frequency which is the indication of resolution is investigated in all the described apertures. The Coherent Transfer Function (CTF) using the CBLD apertures is computed. Application of the CBLD arrangement corresponding to the objective and collector lenses in the CLSM using microscopic input images is shown. The reconstructed images using the described models in the CLSM are investigated. A Mat-Lab code is used for the computation of all images.
Keywords
Modulated Apertures, Resolution, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM)
To cite this article
Abdallah Mohamed Hamed, Design of a Cascaded Black – Linear Distribution (CBLD) in Circular Aperture and Its Application on Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM), American Journal of Optics and Photonics. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2019, pp. 46-56. doi: 10.11648/j.ajop.20190703.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
M. Minsky, Microscopy Apparatus, United States Patent Office. Filed Nov. 7, 1957, granted Dec. 19, 1961. Patent No. 3, 013, 467 (1961).
[2]
https://bitesizebio.com/19958/what-is-confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy/
[3]
Sheppard, C. J. R., and Choudhury, A., 1977, Optica Acta, 24, 1051, Image Formation in the Scanning Microscope.
[4]
Sheppard, C. J. R., 1986, J. Phys. D, 19, 2077, Scanned Imagery.
[5]
Sheppard, C. J. R., and WILSON, T., 1978, Optica Acta, 25, 315 -325, Image Formation in Scanning Microscopes with Partially Coherent Source and Detector.
[6]
Sheppard, C. J. R., Hamilton, D. K., and Cox, I. J., 1983, Proc. R. Soc., Lond. A, 387, 171.
[7]
Sheppard, C. J. R., and Matthews, H. J., 1987, J. opt. Soc. Am., 4, 1354, Imaging in high-aperture optical systems.
[8]
Hopkins, H. H., 1955, Proc. R. Soc., Lond. A, 231, 91.
[9]
Levi, L., and Austing, R. H., 1968, Appl. Optics, 7, 967, Determination of Equivalent Pass band of an aberration free lens using numerical methods.
[10]
Cox, I. J., and Sheppard, C. J. R., 1986, J. opt. Soc. Am., 3, 1152-1158, Information capacity and resolution in an optical system.
[11]
Egger, M. D., and Petran, M., 1967, Science, N. Y., 157, 305-307, New reflected-light microscope for viewing unstained brain and ganglion cells.
[12]
Sheppard, C. J. R., and Wilson, T., 1981, J. Microsc., 124, 107, The theory of the direct‐view confocal microscope.
[13]
Sheppard, C. J. R., and Hamilton, D. K., 1984, Optica Acta, 31, 723.-727, Edge Enhancement by Defocusing of Confocal Images.
[14]
Wilson, T.; Carlini, A. R. J. Microscopy 1988, 149, 51 –66, The effect of aberrations on the axial response of confocal imaging systems.
[15]
Springer, K. R.; Fellers, T. J.; Davidson, M. W. Olympus Corporation; Florida State University: Tallahassee, FL, 2004.
[16]
Cox, G.; Sheppard, C. R. J. Microsc. Res. Tech. 2004, 63, 18–22, Practical limits of resolution in confocal and non‐linear microscopy.
[17]
Sheppard, C. J. R.; Shotton, D. M. Image Formation in the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope; Springer-Verlag, New York Inc.: New York, 1997, pp. 15–31.
[18]
Clair, J. J. & Hamed, A. M. (1983) 133-141, Theoretical studies on optical coherent microscopes. Optik 64 (2) 133-141.
[19]
Hamed, A. M. and Clair, J. J. Optik 64 (1983) 277-284, Image and super-resolution in optical coherent microscopes.
[20]
Hamed, A. M. and Clair, J. J. Optik 65 (1983) 209-218, Studies on optical properties of confocal scanning optical microscope using pupils with radially transmission distribution.
[21]
Hamed, Opt. and laser technology 16 (1984) 93-96, Resolution and contrast in confocal optical scanning microscope.
[22]
Sheppard, C. J. R., 1988, J. mod. Optics, 35, 145.
[23]
Hamed, A. M. Precision Instrument and Mech. PIM 3 (2014) 144-152, Study of graded index and truncated apertures using speckle images.
[24]
Hamed, A. M. and Al-Saeed, T. A. J. Modern Opt. 62 (2015) 801-810, Image analysis of modified Hamming aperture: application on confocal microscopy and holography.
[25]
Hamed, A. M. Optik, 131 (2017) 838-849, Improvement of point spread function (PSF) using linear-quadratic aperture.
[26]
Sheppard, C. J. R. and Ma, X. Q., J. Modern Optics 35 (1988) 1169-1185, Confocal microscopes with slit apertures.
[27]
www.lap.com/(Lambert Academic Publishing), (Author): Abdallah Mohamed Hamed, in (14-11-2017), ISBN: 9786202070706, Title: The PSF of some modulated apertures (Application on speckle and interferometry images).
Browse journals by subject